I learned the new knowledge and the skills through the lectures and the practices in the past two weeks. During this period, I made mistakes however those mistakes helped me to avoid repeating same mistakes.
I will explain what the meaning of fermentation and the factors contribute to the rate of fermentation as well as the experience of management the fermentation in the class.
Fermentation is processed by which yeast changes carbohydrate into carbon dioxide gas and alcohol in the dough. Also, fermentation is developing continuously throughout folding, dividing, rounding, benching, and molding. Fermentation stops when the dough temperature reaches 60 degree Celsius. It is because that the yeast cells are killed in the heated oven.
Understanding fermentation was not easy because fermentation is controlled by various factors. First, fermentation time could be varied by each type of dough. Young dough which has short period of fermentation time will have improper volume and texture which will be coarse. On the contrary, old dough which is fermented for long time will be too strong and hard of the texture. Second, fermentation pace is determined by temperature. Yeast thrives at about thirty-five degree Celsius so yeast rises faster in warm dough than cold dough. For this reason, it is important to pay attention to dough temperature. In order to obtain the proper dough temperature, the several factors should be considered; four temperature of room, flour, water, and friction. Water temperature is the easiest way to control to make the proper dough. It is important to measure the water temperature before yeast dissolve in the water. Third, the yeast amount is determined by dough size, dough consistency, and type of fermentation. Amount of yeast could be affected by time of fermentation for example, when the fermentation time is increased, the amount of yeast should be decreased. Lastly, humidity affects in fermentation. Appropriate humidity provides the environment for the yeast to work actively.
In the past two weeks, I practiced different doughs for bread. Especially, French bread dough was so impressed for me because it was my first time to know about this type of dough and I made mistakes that I will not forget. First time, I used recipe in the Gisslen book for French dough which was used sponge method. When I made sponge for French bread, I should have scale each ingredient correctly and be fully aware of the procedure. I added extra water than the recipe and as a result, I got liquidly sponge. In addition, the procedure mentioned mixing remaining ingredient with sponge however, I made dough separately. As a result, I got lumpy dough, because the dough already developed the gluten. So, I had to ferment the lumpy dough overnight in the refrigerator.
The second time of making French dough, the dough was under-fermented and as a result, I got flat dough. It was because the time of fermentation was short and the temperature was low when the dough was in the proofer. Even though the dough was under-fermented, I could get French bread which was in a good shape and color. It was because other factors such as temperature and humidity could change the result. I baked the dough in the higher temperature around two hundred thirty-five degree Celsius in the oven. In addition, I injected steam for two to three seconds in the first period baking time. It is important that to inject the steam in order to keep the skin of the dough moist and maintain the shape without tearing. The steam also contributed to the color of the crust to be glossy and nut- browns.
Through the classes in the past two weeks, I learned about the detailed knowledge of fermentation. Time, temperature, amount of yeast and humidity are crucial factors to the rate of fermentation.