Design principles

I made different kinds of cake and French pastries for two week. Through this period, I experienced variety of decoration skills including piping icing and writing chocolate on the cakes and pastries. Also, I realized that I have to understand about elements and principles of design in order to improve my decorating skill and knowledge.

According to result searching Interne ( a book, a design is created with elements by line, shape, color, value and texture. And these elements put together using principles such as unity, variety, emphasis, balance and scale. Although elements and principles are divided in design, these elements and principles have to work together to form for successful design.

*Elements are like the ingredients in a recipe in the baking.(from

Line is:

  • A mark that is longer than it is wide
  • An infinite number of points
  • The moving path of a point
Shape is:

  • An area created by an enclosing line
  • An area created by color, value or texture
  • An area created by surrounding shapes
Color is:

  • A property of light
  • Visible when light is emitted or reflected
  • Determined by the wavelength of light
Value is:

  • Relative lightness or darkness
  • Dependent on context
  • Related to color
Texture is:

  • The surface quality of an object
  • Roughness or smoothness
  • The sensation of a tactile surface


*The design principles are procedures which are used for putting elements together to create effective design. The elements of a design mean “what” and the principles mean “how.”(

Unity is the fundamental principle of design and it is supported by all the other principles. Variety means “to change the character” of an element, to make it different. Emphasis creates a focal point in a design. Emphasis can be created by contrast and placement
Balance is the equal distribution of visual weight in a design. Space, in two-dimensional design, is essentially flat; it has height and width, but no depth.

During searching, I realized that the color is used various in the design and it was surprised.(

aThe additive primary colors are red, green and blue and all other additive colors are derived from them. bThe subtractive primaries are red, yellow and blue and combined they form the subtractive secondaries orange (red and yellow), green (yellow and blue) and purple (blue and red). cHue refers to the pure state of a color; it is the name we give a color, such as red or blue. dValue refers to the lightness or darkness of a color. Adding white to a hue creates a lighter value, or tint (adding white to red creates pink) and adding black to a hue creates a darker value, or shade (adding black to red creates maroon).
eSaturation, also referred to as intensity or chroma, refers to the brightness or dullness of a color. fThe color wheel, a visual representation of the subtractive primary, secondary and tertiary colors, forms the basis for color schemes. gA monochromatic color scheme involves variations, usually in value, of a single hue. hAn analogous color scheme uses adjacent colors on the color wheel, as well as their tints and shades.
iA complementary color scheme is created with colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel jA split complementary color scheme uses the two colors adjacent to the color’s complement for balance. kA triadic color scheme involves using three colors equally spaced on the color wheel.

This picture use geometric pattern of plate and use analougous color of flower (Red, red-violet and violet). This picture is well- balanced overall.

This cake use geometric tile pattern and warm color of flowers also tinted-analogous color of icing. Also, the cake use repeated lines and motifs. This cake have glossy and smooth texture.

*pictures from (

Also, line can have different qualities which can be curved or straight, thin or thick, loose or precise, delicate or bold, expressive or controlled. Line qualities will remind different feelings. For example, a curved line feels natural and organic, while a straight line feels manmade and mechanical. A delicate line feels soft and feminine, while a bold line feels strong and masculine.

These elements can be transferred to cake and pastries decoration. First, a design is piped onto the plate in chocolate and allowed to set. The spaces can then be filled with colorful sauces. A squeeze bottle is useful for making dots, lines, curves, and streaks of sauce in many patterns.(from Gisslen Professional Baking 6th)


Also, decorative work use piping skills which are widely used in cake and pastry design. When you work with different color, you can make more gorgeous cake and pastries.(from Gisslen in Professional Baking 6th)



Past two weeks, I made different kinds of cake and pastry. Of course, I had to make various color of icing and write as chocolate on top of cake. It was so hard work but I could gain the result that I am satisfied.

Through this session, I learned lots of skill and knowledge also I can understand about element and principle of design. It will help me improve my decoration skill and I can make variety color of icing. I cannot wait to learn pastry next course.

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 2015-06-26 09.31.022015-07-03 10.06.18


About Sarah

My name is Sarah Yeonhee Park. If you would like to know about me more, I would like you to go to my page"About me".

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