Artisan Bread


      I learned new knowledge and skills during classes last month. Especially, I tried to control gluten development. Through this course, I could understand about characteristics of Artisan bread and I learned about pre-ferments more in depth.

Artisan bread has characteristics which are made by hand and are used of pre-ferments. Also, Artisan bread uses no chemical additives and uses traditional production methods. Artisan bread is made by low protein of flour which is darker and has ash content. As a result, the bread has fuller flavor. Rye flour is the most impressed flour in this course because rye flour has unique characteristics. First, rye flour has large amount of nutrients than wheat flour. Also, rye gluten contains low glutenin which is one of the source of formimg the gluten. For the reason, rye bread is made with wheat flour which helps to give volume of bread. The dough made low glutenin will be slackly. Slack dough is soft and easy to stretch but they cannot hold their shape like Ciabatta, Kamut and Spelt bread. Lastly, rye flour includes high in pentosan gums which form gluten. Also they absorb larger quantities of water. As a result, the doughs made from rye flour are gummy and sticky and they are easily overmixed. For the reason, the dough is needed lots of dusting flour.

Ciabatta2015-07-24 08.42.27
Spelt2015-08-19 08.56.35
Kamut2015-08-19 08.18.00

One of the characteristics of Artisan bread is that they are made by pre-ferments which are added in the final dough in order to provide flavor, unique texture and shelf life. The gluten is broken down into small pieces by proteases which are an enzyme which breaks down protein and gluten. Enzymes make the dough become softer, smoother and more extensible. Pre-ferments are one of sources of enzyme activity in bread baking. Adding pre-ferments into the final dough can be mixing faster and more easily and it is easier to stretch and be shaped.

There are several types of pre-ferment such as biga, pre-ferment dough, poolish, sponge, natural sour and soaker. Soaker is one type of pre-ferment which is no yeast. Pre-ferments contribute shapes and quality of Artisan Bread. It can be summarized as follows.

Pre-ferment Products Characteristics
Biga Gibassier


Cracked Wheat


9 Grain bread

It is like mini-dough made with flour, water (50 to 60%), and a small amount of yeast. It can be quite stiff.  2015-08-12 08.06.11
Pre-ferment dough Sourdough Baguette

San Francisco

It is piece of regular dough (made with bread flour, water, yeast, and salt). It has to be added end of mixing step.  2015-07-28 08.17.11
Poolish Ciabatta It is made with equal parts water and flour, with varying amounts of yeast. It should be

stored in the refrigerator.

Sponge Artisan bread


Walnut Raisin

It is made flour, water and yeast in the recipe, but no salt. It is fermented faster than poolish because sponge contains more yeast.  2015-08-06 07.36.12
Soaker Sprouted, Rye

Cracked wheat bread


9 Grain bread

It is mixture of a grain and water. It will give to dough more flavor and develop as enzymes and bacteria work for all night.  2015-07-23 08.34.182015-08-19 09.40.32
Sour starter Sourdough walnut

70% Rye

 2015-08-18 07.01.23
Mash Danish Heavy rye



Mix whole wheat grain  with hot water. By soaking the whole wheat grains, they become softer, more digestible and sweeter.  2015-08-19 08.31.03

During variety grain station, I struggled to handle the doughs because the doughs were very slackly. Especially, Kamut and Spelt were more difficult ones. Spelt and Kamut gluten are weak and easily overworked. Spelt and Kamut bread dough should be mixed for only short period of time to avoid overworking of gluten and reducing its ability to retain leavening gases. However, it was so difficult because  I could not distinguish how much gluten was developed in the dough. Also, both of dough is added with potato flour which increases water absorption of doughs and improves fermentation.  Potato flour contributes that the dough is soft and moist and they resist staling. I think the reason why the dough was slackly is that the recipe includes any bread flour for gluten. For this reason, I added extra bread flour and it was very helpful to control the dough.

2015-08-19 08.15.112015-08-18 08.57.442015-08-19 08.56.35


 2015-08-19 08.18.002015-08-13 07.23.372015-08-13 07.38.25


Artisan breads are crisp- crusted and contain nothing but flour, water, salt and wild or commercial yeast. For this course, I realized that the most recipe contain two to three percentage of salt. I wondered role of salt in the bread baking and thought what can be substituted for salt in bread baking.

                   Sourdough Baguette     yield: 5 each 375g

Baker’s Percentage Ingredients Kg/g
        100 Flour, hard 800
         56 Water 450
         3 Salt 23
3 Yeast 23
         56          Organic Fermented Natural Sour 450
 28 Pre-fermented dough 230
246 1,976

Use the “Straight dough” method

Bulk fermentation is approx. 1 hour.

Portion units at 375g, shape oval, give 10-15min. intermediate proof.

Make up baguettes, degassing as little as possible. Proof

Bake at 220’C with steam, damper closed for the first 10min., decrease temp. to 195’C and continue baking for an additional 15min..


 2015-08-10 08.36.232015-08-10 09.42.082015-08-10 09.27.482015-08-10 09.42.19

2015-08-10 09.42.352015-08-10 09.43.132015-08-10 09.45.402015-08-10 10.57.56


Baker’s Percentage Ingredients Kg/g
100 Flour, hard 800
56 Water 450
1 Salt 5
6 Parmesan Cheese 46
1 Gallic Powder 5
3 Yeast 23
56 Organic Fermented Natural Sour 450
28 Pre-fermented dough 230
251 1,976


Baker’s Percentage Ingredients Kg/g
100 Flour, hard 800
56 Water 450
3 Salt 23
6 Parmesan Cheese 46
1 Gallic Powder 5
3 Yeast 23
56 Organic Fermented Natural Sour 450
28 Pre-fermented dough 230
253 1,976

For the reason, I changed the recipe by reducing salt and adding parmesan cheese and gallic powder. First day, I added 5g of salt, 46g of parmesan cheese and 5g of garlic powder and the result was satisfied. Regular dough was soft and sticky but the dough added parmesan cheese was easy to control.

 2015-08-10 09.27.482015-08-11 09.01.00

     Reglar dough                      The dough added parmesan cheese

Also, the dough added parmesan cheese had aromatic flavor and spicy fragrance.

 2015-08-10 10.57.562015-08-11 10.25.47

Regular baguette                                  Baguette added parmesan cheeses

Second day, I added 23g of salt, 46g of parmesan cheese and 5g of garlic powder.  According to “how baking works” book, if I add salt late in the mixing step, the dough mixes faster and cooler because there is less frictional heat. So I added parmesan cheese into mixer end of mixing step. As a result, the dough was more tightens and was more difficult to stretch. Also the taste was salty. However, flavor was stronger than previous product and the final product had good shape and are glossy.

 2015-08-14 08.39.042015-08-14 09.03.58

2015-08-13 10.45.11The baguettes added parmesan cheese had more dance crumb than regular baguettes.

2015-08-14 10.42.382015-08-14 10.42.09

2015-08-14 10.55.02

                 Regular (above)

              Added cheese (below)

     If I have a chance to make baguette, I would like to add pieces of garlic. I wonder how the flavor and taste will be changed.

     Making Artisan Bread was not easy but I am sure that the experiences were very helpful for me.


About Sarah

My name is Sarah Yeonhee Park. If you would like to know about me more, I would like you to go to my page"About me".

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