Gluten Free Ingredients and Substitutions

Gluten-free baked goods must contain other ingredients that help build structure, or the item will be excessively crumbly, will not hold together, or will not rise. For some items, such as certain quick breads, egg protein can provide the necessary structure. Some starches, such as cornstarch, can also partly compensate for an absence of gluten. The following flours and starches can be used to make gluten-free baked goods. Usually, a mixture of several performs better than any single one. Keep in mind that each of these absorbs a different quantity of water, which means you will have to do some experimenting and adjusting of liquids when making substitutions in formulas.( Gisslen Professional baking6th P. 702-Gluten) ).

  rice flour Brown rice flour is milled from unpolished brown rice and has a higher nutrient value than white rice flour. Since this flour contains bran, it has a shorter shelf life and should be refrigerated. Like white rice flour, brown rice flour is a bit gritty and dense. It’s best when combined with several other flours to avoid a grainy texture in the finished product.(Bread, muffiens and bars)
 wites rice flour  White rice flour is milled from polished white rice and is best combined with several other flours to avoid the grainy texture of rice flour alone.(cookies, cake,Pancake)
 buckwheat flour  Buckwheat flour is not from wheat but the fruit seed of a plant related to rhubarb. It’s high in fiber, iron and B vitamins, and makes wonderful pancakes.
 sorghum flour  Sorghum flour is made from a grain that’s close in texture and taste to wheat flour. It makes great waffles and pancakes. It also cuts the bitterness of bean flour and is excellent in bean flour mixtures.
 coconut-flour  Coconut flour is a bit lighter than almond flour, which makes it perfect for cakes, muffins and breads. Further, it is gluten free, high in fiber and low in carbohydrates.
 soy  Soy flour is high in protchein and fat with a nutty flavor. The best used in small amounts with other flours to tenderize baked goods. Soy flour is sensitive to light and heat and is not recommended for sautéing or frying.(Pizza, pancake)

tapioca Tapioca starch flour is light, velvety flour from the cassava root. It lightens gluten-free baked goods and gives them a texture more like that of wheat flour. It’s especially good in pizza crusts when used in equal parts with either white or brown rice flour.
IMG_3614[1] Chickpea flour is high in protein, iron and fiber. It is ground-up chickpeas that are either raw or roasted. Beyond the health benefits, chickpea flour has a subtle flavor, which makes it great for cooking savory dishes as well as for baking sweet desserts.


 Binding agents

corn starch Cornstarch is similar in usage to sweet rice flour for thickening sauces. Best when used in combination with other flours. Choose organic cornstarch to avoid genetically modified corn.
1404193612_Guargum01 Guar gum is derived from the seed of a legume and has many times the thickening power of cornstarch. Using too much can produce a heavy or stringy texture in baked goods, so measure carefully.
potato starch Potato starch is used in combination with other flours to improve texture. It also can be used as a substitute for cornstarch or tapioca flour in a pinch.
Xanthan gum Xanthan gum is a corn-based, fermented product used as a thickening agent, like guar gum. Using too much can produce a heavy or gummy texture, so measure carefully.
eggs Egg is a tricky ingredient to swap out because it is a flavorless and, often vital, binding agent used quite generously in most coconut flour recipes. Eggs help ingredients stick together while providing added protein. Egg whites can be used for a lower fat content.
arrowroot-powder Arrowroot flour/starch can be used to replace cornstarch if you’re sensitive to corn. Substitute cup for cup. This also serves as a great thickener for sauces and gravies.


Ingredient Substitutions



Saturated fat Unsaturated fat
Butter, Shortening, Margarine Liquid oils
Fats in doughs and batters function as tenderizers, and they improve the mouth feel of cakes and quick breads by giving the feel of moistness. The oil performs these tenderizing and moisturizing functions. In fact, because the oil doesn’t solidify at room temperature, a muffin made with oil may seem even moister than one made with solid fat.
Solid fats are to form and retain air cells when creamed with sugar. Some creaming-method batters depend entirely on these air cells for leavening. The fat is butter, flavor is also another important factor. If butter is a primary flavor in the product. Oils cannot be creamed with sugar to form air cells. Therefore, oil cannot be substituted for solid fats when creaming is essential to leavening. However, sometimes it is possible to substitute oil for part of the fat. The best procedure is to cream the solid fat with the sugar and add the oil to the batter with other liquids. Liquid fats work better when incorporated using the muffin method, rather than the creaming method.


Ground sugars They create tenderness and fineness of texture.

## They retain moisture, thus improving texture and keeping qualities.

## They act as creaming agents with fats, to provide leavening.

## They give crust color because of their browning properties.

Liquid sugars Liquid sugars have no creaming ability, so other forms of leavening must be substituted.

You may be able to mix the batter by the muffin method rather than the creaming method, as long as you increase the quantity of baking powder.

## If a large quantity of liquid sugar is used, reduce the other liquids in the formula.

## Not all liquid sugars have the same sweetening power, so you may have to adjust quantities.

Brown rice syrup, for example, is only 30 to 60 percent as sweet as white sugar, whereas honey is sweeter than white sugar.

Substitutes Sucralose is the most useful sugar substitute in baked goods. It is sold under the brand name Splenda. Pure sucralose is 600 times sweeter than sugar. For baking, it is mixed with a bulking agent called maltodextrin to give it the same sweetening power and texture as an equal volume of sugar.

This product is called granular sucralose. In pies, cookies, quick breads, dessert sauces, and custards, substitute an equal volume of granular sucralose for the sugar in the formula.


In many formulas, full-fat milk can be replaced with low-fat or nonfat milk without significantly changing the characteristics of the finished product. Low-fat and fat-free sour cream can be substituted for regular sour cream in some formulas, and fat-free yogurt often works in place of sour cream, as does whole-milk yogurt.

Many types of milk substitutes are available. Soy milk is perhaps the most familiar, although this of course is not suitable for people with soy allergies. Other commercially available milk substitutes are made from rice, almonds, quinoa, potatoes, sesame seeds, and coconut. (Coconut milk, unlike the other products, is high in fat—17% or more.) Some of these are available in powdered as well as liquid form.


Egg yolks contain fat and cholesterol, while egg whites are fat-free. If the goal is to reduce fat and cholesterol, use egg whites in place of an equal weight of whole eggs in doughs and batters when the egg is used as a binder. When egg foams are used for leavening, egg-white foams can often be substituted for whole-egg foams. Of course, when the eggs are also a main structural component of a baked item, using egg-white foams in place of whole eggs causes too great a change in the product. For example, if you substitute egg whites in a genoise sponge cake formula, the product will no longer be a genoise but something more like an angel food cake. For egg allergies, substituting egg whites is not acceptable. All egg products must be eliminated. Commercial baking egg substitutes containing starches and gums are designed to be used in place of eggs in doughs and batter. Other starches, gums, and proteins can substitute for eggs to replace their binding power. For example, tapioca flour and arrowroot flaxseed meal and have lots of fiber and gums.


 Jaime Young (2015) Must-Have Ingredients For Gluten-Free Baking. Available from:

  • This blog posted information about gluten free ingredients and substitution

PCC Natural market (2015) baking with gluten-free flours. Available from:

  • Role and functions of Gluten free ingredients.

Gluten free works –Food substitute guide. Available from:

  • This blog has lots of information about gluten free substitution.

Gluten free goddess (2008)-Gluten-free wheat-free baking Tips & Substitutions

  • This blog is professional and useful.

This book was published by Fair Winds Press Text and Photography: by Erica Kerwien, 2014

The healthy Coconut Flour CookbookErica Kerwien

  • This book has information about coconut flour and recipes. There are many recipes coconut flour bread and cookies.

Ingredients Substitution from:

Professional baking 6th– Gisslen

Layton, Larsen (2015) for dummies. Tips for Mixing Gluten-Free Doughs and Batter. Available from:

  • This blog has information about gluten free mix methods.

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