Gluten-free baked goods must contain other ingredients that help build structure, or the item will be excessively crumbly, will not hold together, or will not rise. For some items, such as certain quick breads, egg protein can provide the necessary structure. Some starches, such as cornstarch, can also partly compensate for an absence of gluten. The following flours and starches can be used to make gluten-free baked goods. Usually, a mixture of several performs better than any single one. Keep in mind that each of these absorbs a different quantity of water, which means you will have to do some experimenting and adjusting of liquids when making substitutions in formulas.( Gisslen Professional baking6th P. 702-Gluten) ).
REPLACING SATURATED FATS AND TRANS-FATS WITH MORE HEALTHFUL UNSATURATED FATS
|Saturated fat||Unsaturated fat|
|Butter, Shortening, Margarine||Liquid oils|
|Fats in doughs and batters function as tenderizers, and they improve the mouth feel of cakes and quick breads by giving the feel of moistness.||The oil performs these tenderizing and moisturizing functions. In fact, because the oil doesn’t solidify at room temperature, a muffin made with oil may seem even moister than one made with solid fat.|
|Solid fats are to form and retain air cells when creamed with sugar. Some creaming-method batters depend entirely on these air cells for leavening. The fat is butter, flavor is also another important factor. If butter is a primary flavor in the product.||Oils cannot be creamed with sugar to form air cells. Therefore, oil cannot be substituted for solid fats when creaming is essential to leavening. However, sometimes it is possible to substitute oil for part of the fat. The best procedure is to cream the solid fat with the sugar and add the oil to the batter with other liquids. Liquid fats work better when incorporated using the muffin method, rather than the creaming method.|
|Ground sugars||They create tenderness and fineness of texture.
## They retain moisture, thus improving texture and keeping qualities.
## They act as creaming agents with fats, to provide leavening.
## They give crust color because of their browning properties.
|Liquid sugars||Liquid sugars have no creaming ability, so other forms of leavening must be substituted.
You may be able to mix the batter by the muffin method rather than the creaming method, as long as you increase the quantity of baking powder.
## If a large quantity of liquid sugar is used, reduce the other liquids in the formula.
## Not all liquid sugars have the same sweetening power, so you may have to adjust quantities.
Brown rice syrup, for example, is only 30 to 60 percent as sweet as white sugar, whereas honey is sweeter than white sugar.
|Substitutes||Sucralose is the most useful sugar substitute in baked goods. It is sold under the brand name Splenda. Pure sucralose is 600 times sweeter than sugar. For baking, it is mixed with a bulking agent called maltodextrin to give it the same sweetening power and texture as an equal volume of sugar.
This product is called granular sucralose. In pies, cookies, quick breads, dessert sauces, and custards, substitute an equal volume of granular sucralose for the sugar in the formula.
In many formulas, full-fat milk can be replaced with low-fat or nonfat milk without significantly changing the characteristics of the finished product. Low-fat and fat-free sour cream can be substituted for regular sour cream in some formulas, and fat-free yogurt often works in place of sour cream, as does whole-milk yogurt.
Many types of milk substitutes are available. Soy milk is perhaps the most familiar, although this of course is not suitable for people with soy allergies. Other commercially available milk substitutes are made from rice, almonds, quinoa, potatoes, sesame seeds, and coconut. (Coconut milk, unlike the other products, is high in fat—17% or more.) Some of these are available in powdered as well as liquid form.
Egg yolks contain fat and cholesterol, while egg whites are fat-free. If the goal is to reduce fat and cholesterol, use egg whites in place of an equal weight of whole eggs in doughs and batters when the egg is used as a binder. When egg foams are used for leavening, egg-white foams can often be substituted for whole-egg foams. Of course, when the eggs are also a main structural component of a baked item, using egg-white foams in place of whole eggs causes too great a change in the product. For example, if you substitute egg whites in a genoise sponge cake formula, the product will no longer be a genoise but something more like an angel food cake. For egg allergies, substituting egg whites is not acceptable. All egg products must be eliminated. Commercial baking egg substitutes containing starches and gums are designed to be used in place of eggs in doughs and batter. Other starches, gums, and proteins can substitute for eggs to replace their binding power. For example, tapioca flour and arrowroot flaxseed meal and have lots of fiber and gums.
Jaime Young (2015) Must-Have Ingredients For Gluten-Free Baking. Available from:
- This blog posted information about gluten free ingredients and substitution
PCC Natural market (2015) baking with gluten-free flours. Available from:
- Role and functions of Gluten free ingredients.
Gluten free works –Food substitute guide. Available from:
- This blog has lots of information about gluten free substitution.
Gluten free goddess (2008)-Gluten-free wheat-free baking Tips & Substitutions
- This blog is professional and useful.
This book was published by Fair Winds Press Text and Photography: by Erica Kerwien, 2014
The healthy Coconut Flour Cookbook –Erica Kerwien
- This book has information about coconut flour and recipes. There are many recipes coconut flour bread and cookies.
Ingredients Substitution from:
Professional baking 6th– Gisslen
Layton, Larsen (2015) for dummies. Tips for Mixing Gluten-Free Doughs and Batter. Available from:
- This blog has information about gluten free mix methods.