Chocolate and Tempering
I have taken Pastry course last for six months. During this period, I thought that chocolate is very important ingredient because chocolate was used almost pastries. For example, chocolate was used in mousse, sorbet and most fillings as one of ingredients also chocolate was used to dip products such as cookies, fruits and chocolates. Especially, when I made dipping truffles, molding chocolates and decorative items, I could see that the chocolate products were great glossy and crispy. I was absorbed in handling chocolate because I cannot understand why different tempered chocolate and untampered chocolate. For the reason, I will mention about tempered chocolate what is tempered chocolate.
What is chocolate tempering?
Tempering is the process which is controlled by melting and cooling of chocolate. The purpose of tempering is to solidify the cocoa butter in chocolate into a form that provides the most appealing appearance, texture and flavor. Tempering involves gradually heating chocolate to dissolve all crystals; temperature should be between 46’C and 49’C and then the chocolate should be cool down between 26’C and 27’C. After that the chocolate is warmed slightly around 31’C to melt undesirable low melting crystals. (Paula F. how baking works third edition: cocoa and chocolate products (2011).p412-413. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, INC.
How to discovered tempering?
Tempering has developed over three centuries for the chocolate. Before people discover tempering, chocolate was served as a beverage. Around 4,000 years ago, Mayan and Aztec civilization found cocoa bean and could use as their own form of chocolate. They ground cocoa beans into small pieces and mix the pieces with water. This mixture was called ‘Xocoatl’ which mean bitter water. Xocoatl was informed to other neighbor nations such as Europe, Jamaica, and England. Form this time, chocolate was repeated change into variety chocolate beverages.
In 1847, Joseph Fry discovered solidified chocolate and could make solidified chocolate into paste, which was an important step in the discovery of tempering chocolate and the first recorded. Until this time, handling chocolate was still hard work and eats. During 19th century, many chocolate makers tried to improve taste and texture of chocolate also invent new different type of chocolate. Whole process of chocolate making was required careful works. Tempering temperature gives alteration of fat and structure of chocolate and changes the crystals into correct shape. The result, this chocolate is tempered with a great shiny, stable and crisp which is desired chocolate.
In 1879, Rudollphe Lindt experimented to get good taste chocolate but no successful. One day, his worker left the factory, turned on choching machine. The machine operated for a whole weekend until Lindt discovered this happened. He expected that all chocolate would hard, spoild and damaged. However, he was surprised because the chocolate in the machine was glossy, smooth, smelled delightful and tasted great. Tempering was discovered accidentally.(Weebly: the Science of tempering chocolate)
Beta Crystal formations
Type I– Soft, dull, splotchy when cooled, no snap, crumbly, melts too easily, melting temperature after it hardens: 17.3˚C
Type II– Soft, dull, crumbly, poor snap, melts too easily, melting temperature after in hardens: 23.3˚C
Type III– Firm, poor snap, melts too easily, partially dull, melting temperature after it hardens: 25.5˚C
Type IV– Firm, good snap, melts too easily, shinier, melting temperature after it hardens: 27.3˚C
TypeV– Glossy, firm, best snap, melts near body temperature, meltion temperature after it hardens: 33.8˚C(Weebly: the Science of tempering chocolate)
When you temper chocolate, you need to consider chocolate temperature.it should be not over temperatrue. it will destroy Type V cocoa butter, simply loik like formless chocolate. tempering chocolate reach accurate temperature, all crystals will dissolve. During the chocolate cooling down, the chocolate will create crystals and shapes which assort into all Types I-V.
Again warming up slightly the chocolate, it will melt any undesirable low melting crystals that also formed.
Tempered chocolate cools and sets, Type V crystals from tempering maintains the sheen and texture for a long time. After tempering, check to tast chocolate using spatula. If the chocolate have streak or not set up, tempering is started again.
If the chocolate is not tempered suitable in process, chocolate products will have problems.
The lists of problems and solving are as follows:
- No set up at room temperature: add enough seed chocolate during the tempering process in in order to allow the cocoa butter to crystallize.
- Dull and blotchy surface: check chocolate temperature. If the chocolate is too hot add more chocolate and stir until enough correct temperature. If the chocolate is too cool stir during use and add warmer chocolate to bring proper temperature.
- Spongy rather than crisp of internal texture: molded chocolate was not right temperature.
- Tempered chocolate become thick: tempered chocolate left too long before using. Tempter again.(Chocoley: troubleshooting Problems & Corrections When Working with Chocolate)
Throught doing this capstone, I realized that what is chocolate tempering and how to work temperature in tempering precees. I could understand about cocoa butter how to change by temperature. Also I realized that if tempered chocolate is stored improperly, the chocolate could lose its temper.Tempering chocolate require attention.however, I receive a reward when I gain beautiful shiny chocolate items.
Eddy Van Damme(2009). Eddy van Damme: How to temper chocolate. Retrieved from: http://www.chefeddy.com/2009/11/how-to-temper-chocolate
Chocolate Alchemy: The art & science of Homemade Chocolate. Retrieved from:
Baking bites: what does it mean to temper chocolate? (2012). Retrieved from:
Shirley Corriher, Food Science: Why Temper Chocolate? Retrieved from:
Chocoley: troubleshooting Problems & Corrections When Working with Chocolate). Retrieved from:
Weebly: the Science of tempering chocolate
Paula F. (2011). How baking works third edition: cocoa and chocolate products p412-413. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, INC.